Inter Caetera

The Legal Battle and Spiritual War against the Native People The Bull Inter Caetera (Alexander VI) May 4, 1493 “Alexander, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to the illustrious sovereigns, our very dear son in Christ, Ferdinand, king, and our very dear daughter in Christ, Isabella, queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, and Granada,…

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The Bull Romanus Pontifex

The Bull Romanus Pontifex (Nicholas V) January 8, 1454 “Nicholas, bishop, servant of the servants of God. for a perpetual remembrance. The Roman pontiff, successor of the key-bearer of the heavenly kingdom and vicar of Jesus Christ, contemplating with a father’s mind all the several climes of the world and the characteristics of all the…

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Dum Diversas

Papal Bull Dum Diversas 18 June, 1452 Pope Nicholas V issued the papal bull Dum Diversas on 18 June, 1452. It authorised Alfonso V of Portugal to reduce any “Saracens (Muslims) and pagans and any other unbelievers” to perpetual slavery. This facilitated the Portuguese slave trade from West Africa. The same pope wrote the bull Romanus…

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