The Bull Romanus Pontifex

The Bull Romanus Pontifex (Nicholas V) January 8, 1454 “Nicholas, bishop, servant of the servants of God. for a perpetual remembrance. The Roman pontiff, successor of the key-bearer of the heavenly kingdom and vicar of Jesus Christ, contemplating with a father’s mind all the several climes of the world and the characteristics of all the…

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Dum Diversas

Papal Bull Dum Diversas 18 June, 1452 Pope Nicholas V issued the papal bull Dum Diversas on 18 June, 1452. It authorised Alfonso V of Portugal to reduce any “Saracens (Muslims) and pagans and any other unbelievers” to perpetual slavery. This facilitated the Portuguese slave trade from West Africa. The same pope wrote the bull Romanus…

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Johnson v. McIntosh

The Legal Battle and Spiritual War against the Native People Johnson v. M’Intosh, 21 U.S. 543, 5 L.Ed. 681, 8 Wheat. 543 (1823) JOHNSON and GRAHAM’S Lessee v. WILLIAM M’INTOSH March 10, 1823   “ERROR to the District Court of Illinois. This was an action of ejectment for lands in the State and District of…

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